Peer reviewed publications
Fortifying Social Acceptance When Designing Circular Economy Business Models on Biowaste Related Products
Authors: Tuomo Eskelinen, Oswald Sydd, Miika Kajanus, David Fernández Gutiérrez, Miguel Mitsou, José M. Soriano Disla, Manuel Vals Sevilla and Johan Ib Hans.en
Unlocking New Value from Urban Biowaste: LCA of the VALUEWASTE Biobased Products
Authors: David Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alejandra Argüelles, Gemma Castejón Martínez, José M. Soriano Disla and Andrés J. Lara-Guillén
Sectorial and industrial magazines & journals
EU: European Union
EFSA: European Food Safety Authority
DG: Directorate General
RTOs: Research and Technological Organisations
SMEs: Small and Medium Enterprises
TC: Technological Centre
EB: Executive Board
WP leaders: Work Package leaders
AB: Advisory Board
IT: Innovation Team
OFMSW: Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste
AD: Anaerobic Digestion
DEMO Plant: Demonstration Plant
VC: Value Chain
SCP: Single Cell Protein
LCA: Life Cycle Assessment
S-LCA: Social Life Cycle Assessment
DMP: Data Management Plan
IPR: Intellectual Property Rights
WWTP: Waste Water Treatment Plant
DSP: Down Stream Process
IP: Intellectual Property
AS: Ammonium Sulphate
BSF: Black Soldier Fly Hermetia illucens
U-Loop fermentor: technology developed by P7 UNIBIO for VC2.
UniProtein: protein product produced by P7 UNIBIO in VC2.
BM: business model
CE: Circular Economy
CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate
The purpose of deliverable 4.2 was to identify a suitable technology for dewatering of digestate in the Value Waste project, test and evaluate the functionality and performance of the chosen technology, identify weak links in the function and capacity of the technology, and plan for improvements to be done before implementing the technology on site in Murcia.
Given the digestate properties expected in Murcia, there was basically a choice between two different technologies, either decanter centrifuge or screw press. The screw press was chosen, primarily because of it being better at intermittent dewatering, as would be the case in the Value Waste project. The screw press also stood out with lower energy consumption and more consistent performance when running intermittently.
After initial delays and incomplete delivery, the unit could be assembled and set up to perform dewatering tests. Two test sites were selected to gain relevant experience. Flocculant dosing could be optimized to get a good dewatering result. The test sludge contained 2,5-3% dry solids (DS), which was comparable to the expected DS levels of the Murcia setup. The DS of the dewatered material landed at an average of 21%.
The dewatering test results showed that the screw press capacity was at about 650l/h, which was more than sufficient for the digestate flow to be treated in Cañada Hermosa (Murcia). The initial flow required for Value Waste was 100l/h. However, this was later changed to 1000l/h. The screw press was determined not to be an issue, as the project would rely on an intermediary tank for the digestate after the press.
The Murcia pilot consists of four distinct treatment steps delivered by different partners within the project: digestion of the collected waste (Inderen), dewatering (Ekobalans), P-recovery (NuReSys) and N-recovery (Ekobalans). The P and N recovery are performed on the dewatering liquor to obtain pure mineral fertilizer which can be mixed up to achieve the correct NKP ratio (K to be added). The recovered fertilizers as struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O) and ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4) will be used later on trials to analyse their efficiency. All the units are connected physically and also via the PLC communication.
Dewatering of digestate is accomplished using a screw press after flocculation. It was designed for 4% DS in feed which translates to a maximum capacity of 1025 l/h at continuous operation.
The dewatering liquor flow of 1m³/h is used to recover phosphorus in a 2-stage process. Stage 1 compromises of induced pH increase by air turbulence in a stripper. The second stage is the crystallisation reactor where if needed pH is adjusted by NaOH dosing and MgCl2 is added at a flow proportional ratio providing the limiting reagent Mg2+. Expected struvite production is between 3.84 – 10.63 kg/day.
Following P-recovery unit is the N-recovery plant. The ammonium is transformed to ammonia by heating the flow to 60-70 °C and increasing pH to 10-11 by the addition of sodium hydroxide. Then is ammonia is stripped from the liquid and then reacts with sulfuric acid forming crystals of AS in a crystallizer. With a feed flow of 1 m3/h containing 2000 mg N/l and a 95 % removal AS production will be 9 kg/h. A flow of 2.7-7.2 m3/d will give 24-65 kg AS/d.
Organisation in charge: Nuresys
The pilot plant as described in summary deliverable D4.3 was installed on-site. The installation of the separate pilot units was done in 3 distinct phases. The different pilot sections (waste sorting, digestion, dewatering, P-recovery and N-recovery) were installed individually at first but had to be interconnected both in terms of mass-transfer (sorted waste, digestate, filtrate) and operation wise. The latter means that the separate unit had to communicate by PLC to ensure adequate functioning of all separate parts as one functional unit. This had to be ensured by physical connections and electronic communication.
Work done to ensure the above was full lay-out design within the contribute space available (taking into account all needed safety precautions). Also a set of hydraulic piping was installed to transfer liquid flows form one pilot unit to the next. In addition, commodity such as clean process water was also installed to provide where needed.
Next to the physical connection PLC communications were installed ensuring correct “go-ahead” data exchange to maintain automated process flow transfer.
All of the above was coordinated by WP leader. First a general proposal was elaborated and discussed within the group of all pilot plant partners. A final design operational set-up was selected and installed on site.
This deliverable gathers the in vitro studies that will be performed to carry out toxicicty testing for safety evaluation of the new biocompounds obtained from the three revalorising lines within the VALUEWASTE project and that are expected to be used as novel ingredients in feed and food, as well as biofertilizers. A case study strategy is proposed which sets out a phased integrated roadmap for a practical safety assessment of new biowaste products from each value chain and the in vitro tests that will be carried out to provide the necessary evidence and information to conclude whether or not the bioproducts are safe under the intended and proposed conditions of use.
This deliverable gathers the results of the in vitro studies carried out for the safety assessment of the new biocompounds obtained from microorganisms (methanotrophic bacteria) and insect revalorisation lines within the VALUEWASTE project and which are expected to be used as novel ingredients in feed and food. Functionality and safety tests have been carried out. Functionality tests are aimed at studying possible commercial applications of these biocompounds.
The safety tests are carried out to ensure that the new products do not present toxicological and microbiological risks. This document contains the identification, compositional data and production process of the tested samples, the performed in vitro tests for each sample, as well as the obtained results. It includes a discussion of the previous information, taking into account the importance of the possible risks in the production processes that may influence the safety of the biocompounds from the VALUEWASTE revalorisation lines. The results obtained so far from in-vitro studies seem to indicate that it is very likely for these biocompounds to comply with KPI related to ensure the safety of the biowaste-derived products
VALUEWASTE proposes an integrated approach in urban biowaste upcycling for the production of high-value biobased products (biofertilisers and proteins for food and feed). Such an innovative approach brings strategic (bio)resources back to the economy and offers a solution to one of the most important worldwide issues (biowaste management). On the path leading to the development and commercialisation of this concept, the protection and exploitation of the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) is crucial. Therefore, this document describes the IPR strategy and plan of the VALUEWASTE project.
A total of fifteen potential exploitable results are identified across the project work packages, providing information about their ownership, protection and potential ways for exploitation, and a preliminary timeframe.
The so-called VALUEWASTE Solution represents a systemic solution through the implementation of three value chains following a cascading approach. Thus, a specific Section is devoted to describing the mechanisms for the protection and exploitation of the solution as a whole. It also includes a patent research, providing useful insights on the state-of-the-art and how the VALUEWASTE innovation compares with available solutions or products. A total of 18 related developments published by patent are described.
The report also describes the terms for licensing pre-existing know-how (Access Rights to Background), procedures to transfer the knowledge acquired during the project and deal with confidential results, as well as intellectual property aspects regarding the Dissemination and Communication strategy.
The main takeaway message is that VALUEWASTE features a cutting edge and innovative solution going beyond the state-of-the-art. This represents an enormous opportunity from the point of view of protection and exploitation. Intellectual property assets have to be acquired and adequately audited and monitored to extract their full value. Thus, this Deliverable is to be continuously updated with the advance of the project and generation of results.
This deliverable, based on the FAO/WHO safety assessment approach, constitutes a practical guidance for the implementation of Safe by Design (SbD) in the circular economy sector focus on VALUEWASTE proposed biowaste valorising lines. This document pretends to serve as guidance for the design and obtention of new biowaste derived compounds and enabled products, and their manufacturing processes. SbD aims to reduce the risks and uncertainties to humans, animals and the environment, along the three valorising chains starting at an early phase of the innovation process. The concept of SbD implies a balance between safety, functionality and cost – safety is therefore considered an integral part of the process and not as an optional add-on.
D9.1 is the first deliverable for subtask 9.2.1 “Analysis of the applicable standardization landscape”, within task T9.2 “Standardization activities” inside WP9 “Regulatory framework, EU policy and standardisation and policy”. It collects information on the standardization landscape starting from needs of other WPs about existing standards that can be related with the sources, the processes and the expected products of VALUEWASTE developments, to enhance the compatibility and interoperability and thus facilitate the acceptance and utilization by the market of the developed solutions. This deliverable is also initial information for the planning of the subsequent activities of task 9.2.
It includes information about the European standardization Technical Committees (TCs) related with the topics handled by the project: the main topic, valorisation of urban biowaste, but also those related with the expected high-value end products. A selection of their published standards and standards under development that can be of interest for the project activities is also detailed in the deliverable. This will facilitate to identify the standardization framework of the project and the needs for further contribution to standardization actions to be performed after in the task.
The Spanish Association for Standardization, UNE, as National Standardization Body (NSB) member of CEN and CENELEC, is a partner of the VALUEWASTE project and responsible of this deliverable.
Deliverable D9.5 shows the progress on Task 9.2 “Standardization activities” inside WP9 “Regulatory framework, EU policy and standardisation and policy”.
It reflects the rationale for approaching to a selection of European (CEN) and International (ISO) Standardization Technical Committees (TCs) from those identified in Deliverable D9.1 and providing them extensive information about the project in order to cooperate. It shows the extent of the spread of the VALUEWASTE project through the standardization network and the impact within a region.
Finally, it also sets recommendations for future standardization fields and introduces the path forward to produce a new pre-standard out of the TCs structure based on the outputs and experience already gained by VALUEWASTE partners during the first half of project development.
It proposes to set a CEN Workshop on “Urban Biowaste Quality” to develop a CEN Workshop Agreement (CWA) providing guidance for the improvement of urban biowaste collection and management. VALUEWASTE friend-projects – Scalibur, WaysTup and Hoop would be invited to engage.
The Dissemination and Communication Plan is the core document outlining the project’s dissemination and communication activities. The tools and activities included in the plan have the following objectives:
- To promote the VALUEWASTE project and make it known by both, the general public and relevant stakeholders.
- To get the engagement of the European society and institutions.
- To spread knowledge by communicating the project’s results and contributing to the scientific community’s knowledge.
- To increase the impact of the project’s findings.
- To attract potential users of the project results, including opening up potential business opportunities.
- To promote collaboration and dialogue between the consortium partners, in order to increase the impact of the project and communicate it harmonically.